Month: August 2021

How to Get First Aid kit

In our daily life, we often encounter people who suddenly become ill, which makes us rushed. Some patients die because of untimely rescue. If we understand some common sense of first aid and take some first aid measures in time, it will alleviate the condition and even win precious time for the medical staff to save the patient’s life. First aid kits play an important role in the rescue.

Features: easy to carry, light, and small
Category: family, outdoor, car, etc.
Configuration: alcohol cotton, gauze, etc.
1 Basic composition
2 Application range
3 Features
4 configuration
5 Backup emergency medicine
basic component
First aid kits are divided into several categories such as family, outdoor, automobile, labor insurance, military and police, hospital and disaster prevention. It is mainly equipped with oxygen cylinders; aluminum splints; sphygmomanometers; bandages and dressings; artificial respiration membranes and other first-aid products.
Scope of application
Chemical industry, medical, technology, and chemical laboratories, management and administrative departments, metal, and metallurgical industries.
Easy to carry, complete rescue equipment, light, and compact
The contents of the first aid kit:
Flashlights, water, matches, compressed biscuits, timekeeping appliances (such as watches), band-aids, and communication tools should be available if conditions permit.
1. Alcohol cotton: used to disinfect hands or pliers and other tools before first aid.
2. Gloves and masks: can prevent the rescuer from being infected.
3. 0.9% saline: used to clean wounds. Based on hygiene requirements, it is best to choose independent small packages or medium-sized bottles. It should be noted that after opening, the leftovers should be thrown away and do not put in the first aid kit. If not, use unopened distilled water or mineral water instead.
4. Sterilizing gauze: used to cover the wound. It is not as likely as cotton to leave the cotton thread on the wound, nor will it affect the wound when it is removed.
5. Bandage: Bandages are elastic and are used to wrap wounds without hindering blood circulation. The 2-inch is suitable for hands, and the 3-inch is suitable for feet.
6. Triangular bandage: It is also called a triangular bandage, which has multiple purposes, and can support injured upper limbs, fix dressings or fractures, etc.
7. Safety pin: fix triangle bandage or bandage.
8. Tape: Paper tape can fix gauze because it does not irritate the skin, it is suitable for ordinary people; zinc oxide tape can fix bandages.
9. Band-aid: used when covering small wounds.
10. Fresh-keeping paper: Take advantage of its characteristic of not sticking to the wound, wrap the burned and scalded parts before sending to the hospital.
11. Bag mask or artificial respiration mask: when applying artificial respiration, prevent infection.
12. Round-headed scissors and pliers: Round-headed scissors are safer and can be used to cut tape or bandages. If necessary, it can also be used to cut clothes. Tweezers can replace the two-handed dressing, or forceps to remove dirt on the wound.
13. Flashlight: It can be used to illuminate the rescue in the dark environment; it can also be used to respond to the pupils of the person who has fainted.
14. Cotton swabs: used to clean bleeding wounds with a small area.
15. Ice pack: Place it on bruises, muscle strains, or joint sprains to constrict capillaries and help reduce swelling. When nosebleeds, place it on the forehead of the injured person to help stop the bleeding.
Backup emergency medicine
Although no coronary heart patient has been found at home, as long as there are elderly people, anti-angina pectoris should be prepared just in case. Commonly used medicines also include medicines for the treatment of colds, fever, diarrhea, and toothache. In addition, there must be some external medicines, such as eye ointment,  pain relief ointment, and supplies for treating minor injuries.
The medicine box should be equipped according to the age, health status, and season of the family members: prepare some anti-allergic medicine in spring, prepare some heatstroke and anti-mosquito bite medicine in summer, prepare some anti-diarrheal medicine in autumn, and prepare some medicine to prevent colds, asthma, and stomach diseases in winter. . There should also be some commonly used small devices in the medicine cabinet, such as blood pressure monitors, stethoscopes, and clinical thermometers.

How to safely use ultraviolet rays for sterilization under the new crown virus epidemic?

Ultraviolet rays are the natural enemies of most microorganisms and can be easily killed. During the SARS period, experts discovered that the use of ultraviolet rays with an intensity greater than 90μW/cm2 for 30 minutes can kill the SARS virus.

Studies have found that there is a correlation between the new coronavirus and the SARS virus, and the scientific and reasonable use of ultraviolet rays can effectively kill the new coronavirus.

So, how can ordinary people use ultraviolet rays in the fight against pneumonia caused by the new coronavirus infection is the safest and most effective.

How does ultraviolet light kill the new coronavirus?

The Chinese have a special affection for the sun, believing that “more exposure to the sun can sterilize and disinfect”. Sunlight itself contains ultraviolet rays. People use ultraviolet rays to remove mites, disinfect and sterilize when drying quilts and drying clothes.

Ultraviolet rays are actually radiation with a wavelength between 100-400 nanometers in the electromagnetic spectrum. Like infrared rays, they cannot be seen by the human eye. Ultraviolet rays can destroy the structure of DNA and RNA in microorganisms, and cause the genetic material in microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria to break, cross-link, or form photochemical products.

At the same time, ultraviolet rays can also act on oxygen atoms in cells to form lethal active oxygen free radicals, which can cause microbial cells to fail to proliferate or directly die. For example, if people stand under the summer sun for some time, their skin will be sunburned, because human skin is also composed of cells, and both cells and bacteria belong to living organisms.

The culprit of this epidemic-the genetic material of the new coronavirus is RNA. Ultraviolet rays can act on the genetic material of the virus, causing the RNA of the virus to break, making it unable to synthesize the required protein normally, thereby killing the virus.

However, the new type of coronavirus cannot be killed only by the sun, and the sun cannot reach the temperature to kill the germs, so everyone should still wear masks and goggles when going out.

What should I pay attention to when using ultraviolet rays to sterilize?

Compared with chemical disinfection products such as alcohol and disinfectant, ultraviolet light, as a relatively safe, economical, and high-sterilization rate physical method, is increasingly being used in people’s daily lives. Because of its convenient operation and a wide range of applications, products with ultraviolet sterilization functions have become popular on all major e-commerce platforms.

However, there are many issues that need to be paid attention to when using products with UV function. First of all, UVB in ultraviolet light is the main component that causes skin sunburn. Long-term exposure to ultraviolet light can cause skin pigmentation, thickening and rough skin, photoaging, and even serious cancer.

Secondly, the eyes are the most sensitive part of ultraviolet rays. Long-term exposure will cause phosphorous ions to combine with calcium ions in the aging lens, which will cause our eyes to appear calcified or hardened. At this time, the vision of the eyes will become cloudy. Cataracts appeared.

How to use the UV function of home appliances to sterilize?

In addition to causing damage to the skin and eyes, ultraviolet rays can also produce ozone when used improperly, which can easily cause problems such as coughing, breathing difficulties, and decreased lung function. Therefore, it is best to use ultraviolet rays for sterilization and disinfection in a closed space.

There are many home appliances with ultraviolet sterilization functions on the market, such as dryers, dishwashers, disinfection cabinets, etc., have become the current best-selling product categories.

Many families think that clothes are “clean” after washing, but some bacteria may still be hidden deep in the fabric fibers. In addition, many companies have resumed work. People will inevitably have to go out and come in contact with others, and there are a lot of naked eyes hidden on clothes. For germs that cannot be seen, simple cleaning and drying will not be effective in sterilization and disinfection.

In terms of sterilization of clothes, the TH100-H36WT heat pump dryer launched by Little Swan, which has been focusing on washing and protecting for 42 years, is equipped with the unique ultraviolet sterilization function of the industry. The sterilization rate is as high as 99.9%, which can effectively kill the germ residues on the clothes. , And no harm to the human body. The clothes, shoes, hats, gloves, school bags, etc. worn when going out can be thoroughly sterilized, allowing people to travel between work and home with peace of mind.

Finally, consumers need to be reminded that although ultraviolet rays can kill viruses, bacteria, and other microorganisms in the external environment, once these viruses enter the human body, ultraviolet rays have no effect on them, so do not directly accept ultraviolet rays. These practices are both ineffective and dangerous. Instead, they should seek medical attention in time.

Do you know how to distinguish eight kinds of vacuum blood collection tubes?

The different colors of the standard vacuum headcover and label represent different types of additives and test purposes, so you can choose the corresponding test tube according to the requirements. Vacuum blood collection tubes are generally divided into the following types:

1, red-head cap tube (dry vacuum tube without additives)

The inner wall of the blood collection tube is evenly coated with an agent (silicone oil) to prevent wall hanging. It uses the principle of natural blood coagulation to coagulate the blood. After the serum is naturally precipitated, it is centrifuged for use. Mainly used for serum biochemistry (liver function, kidney function, myocardial enzymes, amylase, etc.), electrolytes (serum potassium, sodium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, etc.), thyroid function, drug testing, AIDS testing, tumor markers, serum immunity Learn.

2, orange-red head cap tube (coagulation tube)

(This is indeed orange-red, but it is very similar to the red above)

The inner wall of the blood collection tube is evenly coated with silicone oil to prevent wall hanging, and coagulant is added at the same time. The coagulant can activate the fibrinase to turn soluble fibrin into insoluble fibrin polymer, and then form a stable fibrin clot. If you want to get the result quickly, you can use the coagulation tube, usually, within 5 minutes The collected blood can be clotted. Generally used in emergency biochemistry.

3. Golden yellow cap tube (blood tube containing inert separating glue and coagulant)

The tube wall is siliconized and coated with a coagulant to accelerate the coagulation of blood and shorten the test time. Separating glue is added to the tube. The separating glue tube has a good affinity and plays a role in isolation. Generally, even on ordinary centrifuges, the separation glue can completely separate and accumulate the liquid components (serum) and solid components (blood cells) in the blood. A barrier is formed in the test tube. After centrifugation, no oil droplets are generated in the serum, so the machine will not be blocked. It is mainly used for serum biochemistry (liver function, kidney function, myocardial enzymes, amylase, etc.), electrolytes (serum potassium, sodium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, etc.), thyroid function, drug testing, AIDS testing, tumor markers, PCR, TORCH, serum immunological testing, etc.

4, green cap tube (heparin anticoagulant tube)

Blood collection tubes containing heparin sodium or heparin lithium. Heparin is a mucopolysaccharide containing sulfate groups with a strong negative charge. It has the effect of strengthening antithrombin III inactivations of serine protease, thereby preventing the formation of thrombin. It also has a variety of anticoagulant effects such as preventing platelet aggregation. Heparin tubes are generally used for emergency biochemistry, TORCH, and blood rheology tests. When testing sodium ions in blood samples, heparin sodium tubes should not be used to avoid affecting the test results. Nor can it be used for white blood cell counting and classification, because heparin can cause white blood cell aggregation.

5, purple cap tube (tube containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and its salt)

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid is an amino polycarboxylic acid that can effectively chelate calcium ions in the blood. Chelating calcium will remove calcium from the reaction point and will prevent and stop the endogenous or exogenous coagulation process, thereby Preventing blood clotting, compared with other anticoagulants, it has less effect on the coagulation of blood cells and the morphology of blood cells, so EDTA salts (2K, 3K, 2Na) are usually used as anticoagulants. Used for general hematology (blood routine) examination and blood ammonia detection. It cannot be used for blood coagulation and trace element inspection.

6. ​​Blue cap tube (blood tube containing sodium citrate anticoagulant)

Sodium citrate chelates with calcium ions in the blood sample to play an anticoagulant effect. The ratio of anticoagulant to blood is 1:9. It is mainly used in the fibrinolytic system (prothrombin time, thrombin time, activated partial thrombin time, fiber Proprotein). Pay attention to the full blood volume (2ml) during blood collection to ensure the accuracy of the test results. After blood collection, it should be inverted and mixed 8-10 times immediately.

7, black cap tube (containing 0.109mol/L sodium citrate)

The volume ratio of anticoagulant to blood is 1:4, which is generally used for erythrocyte sedimentation rate testing. When the ratio of anticoagulants is too high, the blood is diluted and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate can be accelerated. Pay attention to the full blood volume (2ml) during blood collection to ensure the accuracy of the test results. After blood collection, it should be inverted and mixed 8-10 times immediately.

8. Gray head cap tube (contains potassium oxalate/sodium fluoride)

Sodium fluoride is a weak anticoagulant. It has a good effect of preventing blood sugar degradation. It is an excellent preservative for blood sugar testing. When using it, pay attention to slowly inverting and mixing. It is generally used for blood glucose testing, not for the urease method to determine urea, nor for alkaline phosphatase and amylase.

With the automated development of testing instruments such as blood cell analyzers, biochemical analyzers, and immune analyzers, the quantity and quality of blood sampling have gradually increased. In order to ensure the quality of the test results, it is necessary to distinguish not only the various vacuum blood collection tubes but also the blood collection sequence of each blood collection tube.

The colors of the caps of various vacuum blood collection tubes are international standards. It is recommended that the blood collection sequence of multiple tubes is: coagulation tube (blue) → blood routine tube (purple) → erythrocyte sedimentation rate (brown) → biochemical tube (red, yellow). It is emphasized that the blood routine tube must be collected in the second tube anyway, which is related to the blood coagulation mechanism. When there is blood culture, the blood routine is the third tube. Because the collection of blood culture specimens requires strict sterility, blood culture tubes are used for blood collection. For the first tube, all blood collection tubes should be slightly inverted 1-7 times after blood collection, without shaking. Only by paying attention to the quality control before analysis, can the test results be accurate and reliable.